When I first started medical school, I was convinced that I could cure all of mankind’s ills with brown rice and kale. And while I have since realized that my initial convictions were a little too idealistic, it has become increasingly clear to me over time that nutrition is a critical, yet often neglected, component of both mental and physical health.
Considering the need to effectively treat the underlying root causes of mental health conditions, understanding nutritional psychiatry is of fundamental importance. As a treatment, nutritional psychiatry focuses on the relationship between diet, nutrition and mental-emotional well being. Nutritional psychiatry can often be one of the key components of an individual’s recovery from mental illness.
What is Nutritional Psychiatry?
Nutritional psychiatry explores the impact of diet and nutrition on mental health. It encompasses a wide range of evidence-based research, including the effects of individual nutrients, dietary patterns, the microbiome and gut health on a patient’s mental and emotional state. The primary goal of nutritional psychiatry is to incorporate evidence-based dietary and nutritional interventions that can improve or restore mental health as a first step in a patient’s recovery. Standard medications are usually only added once the nutritional impact of initial interventions is clear, and only when necessary.
The Connection Between Food and Mental Health
The connection between a person’s diet and mental health has been evident, although often ignored, for centuries. More recently, the connection has finally started to garner significant scientific attention. Research shows that certain nutrients, like omega-3 fatty acids, B vitamins, and minerals—including magnesium, zinc, copper and iron—play a crucial role in brain function and can directly influence mood and cognition (Marx 2017).
Moreover, the gut-brain axis, a complex communication system between the gastrointestinal tract and the central nervous system, has become a focal point in nutritional psychiatry research (Mayer 2022). The gut microbiome, consisting of trillions of bacteria and other microorganisms, can produce neurotransmitters and influence immune function, including levels of inflammation. These influences can contribute both positively and negatively to an individual’s stress response and overall mental outlook.
Principles of Nutritional Psychiatry
- Balance: Nutritional psychiatry emphasizes a balanced diet that includes a variety of whole, unprocessed foods to ensure the intake of essential nutrients needed for optimal mental health. This includes an appropriate mix of proteins, complex carbohydrates, healthy fats, fruits, and vegetables.
- Quality: Focusing on high-quality, nutrient-dense foods is crucial for mental wellness. These include foods rich in antioxidants, vitamins, minerals, and healthy fats that support brain function.
- Personalization: As each individual’s needs and preferences differ, nutritional psychiatry takes a personalized approach, considering factors such as genetic predisposition, gut health, and specific nutritional deficiencies.
- Integration: Nutritional psychiatry is not a standalone treatment but is best used in conjunction with other mental health interventions, including psychotherapy and medication when necessary.
How Nutritional Psychiatry Can Benefit Mental Health
- Mental-emotional support: A balanced diet rich in essential nutrients like omega-3 fatty acids, B vitamins and magnesium can help improve mental health and alleviate symptoms of depression and anxiety (Ljungberg 2020).
- Cognitive function: Proper nutrition can enhance memory, focus, and overall cognitive function, which can be especially beneficial for individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and for helping to reverse or prevent age-related cognitive decline and dementia (Del-Ponte 2019, Loughrey 2017).
- Stress reduction: A diet that includes foods rich in antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals can help the body maintain a healthy stress response along the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, dysregulation of which is linked to various mental health disorders (Marx 2021).
- Gut health: A healthy gut microbiome, achieved through a diverse and fiber-rich diet, can lead to improved mental wellbeing by promoting the production of neurotransmitters like serotonin and dopamine. The microbiome can also modulate immune function and levels of inflammation, influencing mental health (Flowers 2015).
Nutritional psychiatry is a growing field that offers invaluable insights into the relationship between nutrition and mental health. By understanding this connection, and implementing personalized nutritional interventions, individuals can improve or restore their mental-emotional well being and overall quality of life.
Del-Ponte B, Quinte GC, Cruz S, Grellert M, Santos IS. Dietary patterns and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Affect Disord. 2019;252:160-173. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2019.04.061
Flowers SA, Ellingrod VL. The Microbiome in Mental Health: Potential Contribution of Gut Microbiota in Disease and Pharmacotherapy Management. Pharmacotherapy. 2015;35(10):910-916. doi:10.1002/phar.1640
Ljungberg T, Bondza E, Lethin C. Evidence of the Importance of Dietary Habits Regarding Depressive Symptoms and Depression. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(5):1616. Published 2020 Mar 2. doi:10.3390/ijerph17051616
Loughrey DG, Lavecchia S, Brennan S, Lawlor BA, Kelly ME. The Impact of the Mediterranean Diet on the Cognitive Functioning of Healthy Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Adv Nutr. 2017;8(4):571-586. Published 2017 Jul 14. doi:10.3945/an.117.015495
Marx W, Lane M, Hockey M, et al. Diet and depression: exploring the biological mechanisms of action. Mol Psychiatry. 2021;26(1):134-150. doi:10.1038/s41380-020-00925-x
Marx W, Moseley G, Berk M, Jacka F. Nutritional psychiatry: the present state of the evidence. Proc Nutr Soc. 2017;76(4):427-436. doi:10.1017/S0029665117002026
Mayer EA, Nance K, Chen S. The Gut-Brain Axis. Annu Rev Med. 2022;73:439-453. doi:10.1146/annurev-med-042320-014032